A Method Paper: Antibacterial properties and immunostimulatory activity of Piper betle towards the growth performance and immunity level in tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)
Purpose: The present study aims to investigate the potential of Piper betle extract as an antibacterial agent and potential immunostimulant which can enhance immunity level in cultivated tiger shrimp.
Background: Tiger shrimp farming industry is currently dealing with problems associated with infections and diseases outbreaks. Control of diseases through the use of antimicrobial agents and antibiotics had lead to the development of antibiotic resistant pathogen, accumulation of drug residue and environmental pollution. Therefore, a preventive measure which is safe and environmental friendly should be employed over the current practice in disease management of cultured shrimp. The application of immunostimulants has been considered as an alternative approach to deal with health management in shrimp farming through the enhancement of immunity level and disease resistance properties in cultivated shrimp.
Design/Methodology/Approach: The crude extract of Piper betle was prepared using methanol and subsequently used to analyze the antibacterial properties against selected pathogens. The Piper betle extract at different concentration (0%, 5%, 10% and 15%) was then incorporated into the commercial feed for the experimental feeding in tiger shrimp. The growth performances and level of immunity of experimental tiger shrimps were monitored during the 6 weeks of culture period.
Results/Findings: The present findings showed that the incorporation of Piper betle extract at lower concentration (5% concentration, 25 g in 500 g in basal feed) demonstrated better growth performance; weight gain, specific growth rate, and feed conversion ratio as well enhance the number of total haemocytes and reduce the bacterial load in selected organ of treated tiger shrimp.
Conclusion and Implications: This finding suggested the incorporation of Piper betel at 5% (25g in 500 g basal feed) is an optimum dosage and served as an excellent growth promoter and promising immunostimulant in tiger shrimp. The application of medicinal plant such as Piper betle in shrimp farming could reduce the usage of antibiotics which subsequently enhance safety and quality of cultured shrimp.
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